PRONOMES 1

Para entendermos os pronomes, seus usos, recursos e finalidades, precisamos entender alguns conceitos:

  • O pronome substitui um nome [substantivo] – [são chamados pronomes substantivos, pois assumem a função sintática do seu referente].

Ex.: “O coreto estava em ruínas, e a população, sob o argumento de que ele faz parte da história da cidade, reivindicou que a prefeitura o reformasse.”

  • Acompanha um nome, determinando/limitando o sentido dele. – [são chamados pronomes adjetivos, pois apenas acompanham seu referente].

Ex.: “Nosso coreto ficou lindo depois da reforma, e ainda preservou seu estilo romântico.”

  • Substitui seguimentos textuais, expressões, partes de frases ou frases inteiras.

Ex.: “Dizer que a reforma do coreto não ficou boa, isso é absurdo! [neste caso “isso” é pronome substantivo, pois está na posição de sujeito do verbo (é), e retoma a frase anterior inteira]

  • ESSES NOMES, PALAVRAS, EXPRESSÕES OU FRASES AOS QUAIS OS PRONOMES SE REFEREM SÃO CHAMADOS DE REFERENTE.

Já aprendemos que a linguagem [verbal/não verbal] surgiu da necessidade de comunicação entre os seres humanos, aprendemos também, que, para haver comunicação são necessários, no mínimo, três elementos fundamentais, que são os integrantes da comunicação. Em gramática esses integrantes se chamam PESSOAS DO DISCURSO. Veja:

1ª pessoa = aquele que fala/escreve; o locutor, emissor, escritor, falante, enunciador.

2ª pessoa = aquele que ouve/lê; o locatário, receptor, leitor, ouvinte, enunciatário.

3ª pessoa = aquilo de que se fala; o assunto, o tema, o motivo, o referente.

 

Sendo assim, veremos primeiro os pronomes pessoais [retos e oblíquos], pois são os representantes das três pessoas do DISCURSO no singular e no plural, podendo exercer a função de sujeito [caso reto] ou de complemento [caso oblíquo].

 

Caso reto

Função de sujeito

Caso oblíquo

Função de complemento

Oblíquos átonos

*usa-se sem preposição

Oblíquos tônicos

*usa-se sempre com preposição

Singular Eu Me Mim, comigo
Tu/você Te, você, se, o/a, lhe Ti, contigo, você, si, consigo
Ele/ela Se, o/a, lhe Se, ele/ela, consigo
Plural Nós Nos Nós, conosco
Vós/vocês Vos, vocês, se, os/as Vós, convosco, vocês, si, consigo
Eles/elas Se, os/as, lhes Si, eles/elas, consigo

 IMPORTANTE: como mostram os exemplos acima, os pronomes substituem ou acompanham um substantivo ou uma expressão inteira, e portanto podem desempenhar a função sintática de seu referente. A tabela acima mostra sistematicamente as posições sintáticas que os pronomes pessoais podem assumir.

 

A tabela acima também mostra a uniformidade de tratamento no uso dos pronomes, há uma variedade de pronomes oblíquos para cada pronome do caso reto. Na variedade padrão [culta] da língua, para indicar, mais de uma vez, uma mesma pessoa gramatical, é necessário manter a uniformidade gramatical, ou seja, deve-se empregar de maneira uniforme os pronomes referentes a essa pessoa. Assim: tu->te->ti->contigo; você->o/a->lhe->se->si->consigo etc.

  • Os pronomes pessoais oblíquos átonos o, a, os, as assumem formas diferentes quando acompanham verbos que terminam em: R, S, Z. passando para as formas lo, la, los las: É preciso defender os animais. [É preciso defende-los]. Preservamos a natureza. [Preservamo-la]. Fiz meu trabalho ontem. [Fi-lo ontem]
  • Ou terminados em sons nasais como: aõ, ãe, am,em. Ex.: Os jogadores inocentaram o técnico. [inocentaram-no]. Põe as camisas na gaveta. [põe-nas na gaveta]

 

Os pronomes também podem indicar se uma ação é reflexiva ou reflexiva recíproca.

  • Ação reflexiva – a ação volta para o seu próprio agente [aquele que pratica a ação].

Ex.: Às vezes me pergunto por que estou aqui.

  • Ação reflexiva reciproca – a ação é trocada entre dois ou mais agentes.

Ex.: Os noivos se beijam no fim da cerimônia.

 

Os pronomes pessoais e a coesão textual: nos atos de comunicação, os pronomes fazem referência às pessoas do discurso, a quem fala/escreve [1ª pessoa], a quem ouve/lê [2ª pessoa] e a elementos textuais: pessoas, coisas, fatos, ideias etc. que já foram citados antes, a esse tipo de referência chamamos: coesão por ANÁFORA [anafórica]. Há também a coesão por CATÁFORA [catafórica], nesse tipo de referência o referente ainda vai aparecer no texto/conversa.

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